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WebThe word “literature” should be used when referring to a general body of work. It should be used when viewing different writings as a whole and as one. You can use the word in a WebLiterary theory is a framework of ideas that guide you in understanding a particular work of literature. On the other hand, literary criticism is the study, evaluation, and Web · Conducting an exhaustive literature review is your first step. As you search for journal articles, you will need to read critically across the breadth of the literature to Web · One purpose of literature is to draw people closer to the good, true, and beautiful. Authors find formulas to express the best of human nature, even when framed ... read more

Main article: American literature academic discipline. Further information: French literature , German literature , Russian literature , and English poetry § Women poets in the 18th century. Further information: Aesthetic judgment and Value judgment. Further information: Literary theory and Philosophy and literature § The philosophy of literature. Further information: Western canon § Literary canon. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. November Further information: Islamic literature and King James Version § Influence. See also: Genre fiction. Further information: History of copyright. Further information: Copyright in Russia , Copyright law of the Soviet Union , and Intellectual property in China.

Further information: Book censorship , Theatre censorship , and Film censorship. Literature portal Writing portal. Library Literary agent Literary element Literary magazine Reading Rhetorical modes Science fiction § As serious literature Vernacular literature. Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. Archived from the original on 10 June Retrieved 24 July Encyclopaedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 14 December Retrieved 27 July Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 29 July Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 9 February A Definition Based on Prototypes". Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics and University of North Dakota Session.

Retrieved 11 February Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. doi : JSTOR S2CID Anne MacKay ed. Signs of Orality. BRILL Academic. ISBN Bilingual and multicultural perspectives on poetry, music and narrative Archived 10 August at the Wayback Machine : The science of art. Lanham MD: Rowman and Littlefield. Lopez Jr. Brill Academic. hdl : Archived PDF from the original on 1 January Retrieved 22 October ABC News. Archived from the original on 8 September Retrieved 9 March Bibcode : Geo ISSN Clifford Ando and Jörg Rüpke ed. Religion and Law in Classical and Christian Rome.

Franz Steiner Verlag. Archived from the original on 20 August Native American Storytelling: A Reader of Myths and Legends. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Archived from the original on 26 October Retrieved 29 April Rhetoric Review. Visible Language. Ancient Egyptian Literature , vol 1. London, England: University of California Press. At this date, however, many of the individual stories were already ancient. The word niti means roughly "the wise conduct of life. Many words are therefore necessary to explain what niti is, though the idea, once grasped, is clear, important, and satisfying.

The International Journal of Human Resource Management. Archived from the original on 21 April Retrieved 21 October Flood , p. Lochtefeld The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. Archived from the original on 19 October Sharma; June Gaur; Sahitya Akademi New Delhi, Inde. Ancient Indian Literature: An Anthology. Sahitya Akademi. Archived from the original on 12 April Retrieved 18 February The Decipherment of Linear B Second ed. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Documents in Mycenaean Greek. Archived from the original on 14 April Retrieved 15 November Classical Literature: An Introduction. Archived from the original on 10 August Retrieved 23 November Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece.

Retrieved 22 November A Short History of Greek Literature. University of Chicago Press. Inventing Homer: The Early Reception of Epic. Cambridge University Press. The Odyssey Re-formed. Cornell University Press. Homer, His Art and His World. University of Michigan Press. The Idea of the Library in the Ancient World. OUP Oxford. Archived from the original on 5 August Christianizing Homer: The Odyssey, Plato, and the Acts of Andrew. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 30 June Dover ed , Oxford University Press , Intro. The Bible: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The nature of Roman comedy: a study in popular entertainment.

Archived 4 August at the Wayback Machine University of Oklahoma Press, Muhammad and the Believers: at the Origins of Islam. London, England: Harvard University Press. الجزيرة الوثائقية in Arabic. Archived from the original on 16 June Retrieved 18 June Archived from the original on 29 April Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, , rept. From the Renaissance to the Industrial Revolution , edd. Charles Singer et al. Oxford , p. Cited from Elizabeth L. Eisenstein , The Printing Press as an Agent of Change Cambridge University, Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 20 October Archived from the original on 24 October Retrieved 23 October Saturday Review. Archived from the original on 1 August Retrieved 25 October Revolution and Women's Autobiography in Nineteenth-century France.

Germaine de Staël, George Sand, and the Victorian Woman Artist. University of Missouri Press. Archived from the original on 23 September Retrieved 6 November Modern Language Review. Swedish Women's Writing London: The Athlone Press. remains the most translated Italian book and, after the Bible, the most widely read by Francelia Butler, Children's Literature , Yale University Press, Aspects and Issues in the History of Children's Literature. Archived from the original on 27 July Books: a living history. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. Studies in Popular Culture , Vol. Archived from the original on 21 June Retrieved 17 April Archived from the original on 13 July Guardian Unlimited Books.

The Guardian. Archived from the original on 11 November Retrieved 13 October So-called "Alternative FLL-Approaches". Norderstedt: GRIN Verlag. Discontinuous Discourses in Modern Russian Literature. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Children's Literature and its Effects. Handbook of Child Psychology, Child Psychology in Practice. February Language in India. The Bible: a Very Short Introduction. Volume 14 in Very Short Introductions Series 2 ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press published Archived from the original on 23 February Retrieved 23 February In its various translations, [the Bible] has had a formative influence on the language, the literature, the art, the music of all the major European and North American cultures.

It continues to influence popular culture in films, novels, and music. Archived from the original on 22 June Retrieved 12 November Archived from the original on 11 March Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on 24 December Retrieved 10 August Archived from the original on 29 November Retrieved 13 February The Sewanee Review. Oral poetry: its nature, significance, and social context. Indiana University Press. LitWeb, the Norton Introduction to Literature Studyspace. Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 15 February Poetry Bookshop: London, The News Revolution in England: Cultural Dynamics of Daily Information. Oxford: OUP. Susan Maning. Oxford: Oxford University Press, , p.

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The Semiotics of Theatre and Drama. London and New York: Methuen. The Columbia Encyclopedia of Modern Drama Volume 1 ed. New York City: Columbia University Press. Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on 21 December Retrieved 20 December Archived PDF from the original on 27 December Retrieved 6 December The Center for Internet and Society Fair Use Project. Stanford University. Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 21 July Archived from the original on 2 March Chapter 1: An Overview of Copyright , Section II. Ideas Versus Expression. Archived from the original on 28 October However, since the statutes have referred to literary works.

Archived from the original on 29 October Retrieved 11 October 環太平洋パートナーシップ協定の法律) PDF in Japanese. Agency for Cultural Affairs. Archived PDF from the original on 19 January Retrieved 4 January A, Cuddon, "Censorship", The Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory , revised by C. Penguin Books, , pp. Archived from the original on 8 April Retrieved 28 October The New York Times guide to essential knowledge , 3d ed. See the Dissertation Center for additional information about dissertation criteria at NCU. Conducting an exhaustive literature review is your first step. As you search for journal articles, you will need to read critically across the breadth of the literature to identify these gaps.

The first step is gathering a broad range of research articles on your topic. You may want to look for research that approaches the topic from a variety of methods — qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods. Identifying a Gap in the Literature - Dr. Laurie Bedford. How Do You Identify Gaps in the Literature? This workshop presents effective search techniques for identifying a gap in the literature and recommendations for future research. As you begin to gather the literature, you will want to critically read for what has, and has not, been learned from the research. Use the Discussion and Future Research sections of the articles to understand what the researchers have found and where they point out future or additional research areas.

This is similar to identifying a gap in the literature, however, future research statements come from a single study rather than an exhaustive search. You will want to check the literature to see if those research questions have already been answered. Continue to ask critical questions of your topic — who, what, when, where and how — about the population or setting, conditions or variables, methods or analysis, and measurement or outcomes. Use organizational tools such as charts or Venn diagrams to map out the research you find from scholarly articles.

These methods may be helpful to organize what information you have found and what is shared among the literature, as well as to identify what areas may be missing in the research. Identifying the gap in the research relies on an exhaustive review of the literature. Remember, researchers may not explicitly state that a gap in the literature exists; you may need to thoroughly review and assess the research to make that determination yourself. However, there are techniques that you can use when searching in Roadrunner Search to help identify gaps in the literature. You may use search terms such as "literature gap " or "future research" "along with your subject keywords to pinpoint articles that include these types of statements. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older.

This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. NCU Library LibGuides Library How-To Guides Research Process Literature Gap and Future Research Search this Guide Search. Research Process These pages offer an introduction to the research process at a very general level. Research Articles These examples below illustrate how researchers from different disciplines identified gaps in existing literature.

Literature is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction , drama , and poetry. Literature, as an art form, can also include works in various non-fiction genres, such as biography , diaries , memoir , letters , and the essay. Within its broad definition, literature includes non-fictional books, articles or other printed information on a particular subject. Literature is classified according to whether it is poetry , prose or drama , and such works are often further categorized according to historical period, adherence to certain aesthetic features, or genre.

Definitions of literature have varied over time. The word is also used in reference non-written works: to " oral literature " and "the literature of preliterate culture". A value judgment definition of literature considers it as consisting solely of high quality writing that forms part of the belles-lettres "fine writing" tradition. Alternatives such as "oral forms" and "oral genres" have been suggested but the word literature is widely used. Oral literature is an ancient human tradition found in "all corners of the world". The Judeo-Christian Bible reveals its oral traditional roots; medieval European manuscripts are penned by performing scribes; geometric vases from archaic Greece mirror Homer's oral style.

Indeed, if these final decades of the millennium have taught us anything, it must be that oral tradition never was the other we accused it of being; it never was the primitive, preliminary technology of communication we thought it to be. Rather, if the whole truth is told, oral tradition stands out as the single most dominant communicative technology of our species as both a historical fact and, in many areas still, a contemporary reality. The earliest poetry is believed to have been recited or sung, employed as a way of remembering history , genealogy , and law. In Asia, the transmission of folklore, mythologies as well as scriptures in ancient India, in different Indian religions, was by oral tradition, preserved with precision with the help of elaborate mnemonic techniques.

The early Buddhist texts are also generally believed to be of oral tradition, with the first by comparing inconsistencies in the transmitted versions of literature from various oral societies such as the Greek, Serbia and other cultures, then noting that the Vedic literature is too consistent and vast to have been composed and transmitted orally across generations, without being written down. Australian Aboriginal culture has thrived on oral traditions and oral histories passed down through thousands of years. In a study published in February , new evidence showed that both Budj Bim and Tower Hill volcanoes erupted between 34, and 40, years ago.

All ancient Greek literature was to some degree oral in nature, and the earliest literature was completely so. Writing systems are not known to have existed among Native North Americans before contact with Europeans. Oral storytelling traditions flourished in a context without the use of writing to record and preserve history, scientific knowledge, and social practices. Plots often reflect real life situations and may be aimed at particular people known by the story's audience. In this way, social pressure could be exerted without directly causing embarrassment or social exclusion. See also African literature Oral literature.

Oratory or the art of public speaking "was for long considered a literary art". Around the 4th millennium BC, the complexity of trade and administration in Mesopotamia outgrew human memory, and writing became a more dependable method of recording and presenting transactions in a permanent form. Subsequent innovations included more uniform, predictable, legal systems , sacred texts , and the origins of modern practices of scientific inquiry and knowledge-consolidation , all largely reliant on portable and easily reproducible forms of writing. Ancient Egyptian literature , [28] along with Sumerian literature , are considered the world's oldest literatures. It was not until the early Middle Kingdom 21st century BC to 17th century BC that a narrative Egyptian literature was created.

Many works of early periods, even in narrative form, had a covert moral or didactic purpose, such as the Sanskrit Panchatantra. Lyric poetry as opposed to epic poetry was often the speciality of courts and aristocratic circles, particularly in East Asia where songs were collected by the Chinese aristocracy as poems, the most notable being the Shijing or Book of Songs —c. In ancient China , early literature was primarily focused on philosophy, historiography , military science , agriculture, and poetry. China, the origin of modern paper making and woodblock printing , produced the world's first print cultures. Sun Tzu 's The Art of War , c. Sima Qian 's Records of the Grand Historian , c. Ancient Chinese literature had a heavy emphasis on historiography, with often very detailed court records.

An exemplary piece of narrative history of ancient China was the Zuo Zhuan , which was compiled no later than BC, and attributed to the blind 5th-century BC historian Zuo Qiuming. In ancient India , literature originated from stories that were originally orally transmitted. Early genres included drama , fables , sutras and epic poetry. Sanskrit literature begins with the Vedas , dating back to — BC, and continues with the Sanskrit Epics of Iron Age India. The Samhitas vedic collections date to roughly — BC, and the "circum-Vedic" texts, as well as the redaction of the Samhitas, date to c.

The earliest known Greek writings are Mycenaean c. These documents contain prosaic records largely concerned with trade lists, inventories, receipts, etc. It is generally accepted that the poems were composed at some point around the late eighth or early seventh century BC. Classical Greek genres included philosophy, poetry , historiography, comedies and dramas. Although drama was popular in ancient Greece, of the hundreds of tragedies written and performed during the classical age , only a limited number of plays by three authors still exist: Aeschylus , Sophocles , and Euripides. The plays of Aristophanes c. The Hebrew religious text, the Torah , is widely seen as a product of the Persian period — BC, probably — BC.

The beginning of Roman literature dates to BC, when a Roman audience saw a Latin version of a Greek play. The Qur'an AD to AD , [62] the main holy book of Islam , had a significant influence on the Arab language, and marked the beginning of Islamic literature. Muslims believe it was transcribed in the Arabic dialect of the Quraysh , the tribe of Muhammad. Theological works in Latin were the dominant form of literature in Europe typically found in libraries during the Middle Ages. Western Vernacular literature includes the Poetic Edda and the sagas , or heroic epics, of Iceland, the Anglo-Saxon Beowulf , and the German Song of Hildebrandt.

A later form of medieval fiction was the romance , an adventurous and sometimes magical narrative with strong popular appeal. Controversial, religious, political and instructional literature proliferated during the European Renaissance as a result of the Johannes Gutenberg 's invention of the printing press [65] around , while the Medieval romance developed into the novel , [66]. Publishing became possible with the invention of writing but became more practical with the invention of printing. Prior to printing, distributed works were copied manually, by scribes. The Chinese inventor Bi Sheng made movable type of earthenware c.

Then c. This invention gradually made books less expensive to produce and more widely available. Early printed books, single sheets, and images created before in Europe are known as incunables or incunabula. Eventually, printing enabled other forms of publishing besides books. The history of modern newspaper publishing started in Germany in , with publishing of magazines following in In England in the late s, growing political and social awareness, "particularly among the utilitarians and Benthamites , promoted the possibility of including courses in English literary study in the newly formed London University ". This further developed into the idea of the study of literature being "the ideal carrier for the propagation of the humanist cultural myth of a well educated, culturally harmonious nation".

The widespread education of women was not common until the nineteenth century, and because of this literature until recently was mostly male dominated. George Sand was an idea. She has a unique place in our age. Others are great men she was a great woman. Victor Hugo , Les funérailles de George Sand [70]. There were few English-language women poets whose names are remembered until the twentieth century. In the nineteenth century some names that stand out are Emily Brontë , Elizabeth Barrett Browning , and Emily Dickinson see American poetry. But while generally women are absent from the European cannon of Romantic literature , there is one notable exception, the French novelist and memoirist Amantine Dupin — best known by her pen name George Sand.

Jane Austen — is the first major English woman novelist, while Aphra Behn is an early female dramatist. Nobel Prizes in Literature have been awarded between and to individuals: men and 16 women. Selma Lagerlöf — was the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature , which she was awarded in Additionally, she was the first woman to be granted a membership in The Swedish Academy in Feminist scholars have since the twentieth century sought expand the literary canon to include more women writers. A separate genre of children's literature only began to emerge in the eighteenth century, with the development of the concept of childhood.

A fundamental question of literary theory is "what is literature? Literary fiction is a term used to describe fiction that explores any facet of the human condition , and may involve social commentary. It is often regarded as having more artistic merit than genre fiction , especially the most commercially oriented types, but this has been contested in recent years, with the serious study of genre fiction within universities. The following, by the award-winning British author William Boyd on the short story, might be applied to all prose fiction:. The very best in literature is annually recognized by the Nobel Prize in Literature , which is awarded to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel , produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" original Swedish: den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning.

Some researchers suggest that literary fiction can play a role in an individual's psychological development. Psychologist Maslow's ideas help literary critics understand how characters in literature reflect their personal culture and the history. Religion has had a major influence on literature, through works like the Vedas , the Torah , the Bible , [93] and the Qur'an. The King James Version of the Bible has been called "the most influential version of the most influential book in the world, in what is now its most influential language", "the most important book in English religion and culture", and "the most celebrated book in the English-speaking world " [ citation needed ] - principally because of its literary style and widespread distribution.

Prominent atheist figures such as the late Christopher Hitchens and Richard Dawkins have praised the King James Version as being "a giant step in the maturing of English literature" and "a great work of literature", respectively, with Dawkins then adding, "A native speaker of English who has never read a word of the King James Bible is verging on the barbarian". The traditions of close study of religious texts has furthered the development of techniques and theories in literary studies. Poetry has traditionally been distinguished from prose by its greater use of the aesthetic qualities of language, including musical devices such as assonance , alliteration , rhyme , and rhythm , and by being set in lines and verses rather than paragraphs, and more recently its use of other typographical elements.

Prior to the 19th century, poetry was commonly understood to be something set in metrical lines: "any kind of subject consisting of Rhythm or Verses". As noted above, prose generally makes far less use of the aesthetic qualities of language than poetry. Eliot suggested that while: "the distinction between verse and prose is clear, the distinction between poetry and prose is obscure". Eugene Onegin by Alexander Pushkin is the most famous example. On the historical development of prose, Richard Graff notes that "[In the case of ancient Greece ] recent scholarship has emphasized the fact that formal prose was a comparatively late development, an "invention" properly associated with the classical period ".

Latin was a major influence on the development of prose in many European countries. Especially important was the great Roman orator Cicero. Among the last important books written primarily in Latin prose were the works of Swedenborg d.

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Web · One purpose of literature is to draw people closer to the good, true, and beautiful. Authors find formulas to express the best of human nature, even when framed WebThe word “literature” should be used when referring to a general body of work. It should be used when viewing different writings as a whole and as one. You can use the word in a WebLiterary theory is a framework of ideas that guide you in understanding a particular work of literature. On the other hand, literary criticism is the study, evaluation, and Web · Conducting an exhaustive literature review is your first step. As you search for journal articles, you will need to read critically across the breadth of the literature to ... read more

Definitions of literature have varied over time. See also African literature Oral literature. It enriches the necessary competencies that daily life requires and provides; and in this respect, it irrigates the deserts that our lives have already become. She has also worked as an editor and teacher, working with students at all different levels to improve their academic writing. Hello, I heard the expression "in literature" and "in the literature" see as example the sentence below. Ideas Versus Expression.

Roadrunner Search Identifying the gap in the research relies on an exhaustive review in the literature the literature. We and our partners use data for Personalised ads and content, in the literature, ad and content measurement, audience insights and product development. Writing the literature review shows your reader how your work relates to existing research and what new insights it will contribute. Japan was a party to the original Berne convention inso its copyright law is in sync with most international regulations. Retrieved 21 July Visible Language. Aspects and Issues in the History of Children's Literature.